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CIM Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011
In a nickel smelting process, large amounts of off-gas emissions are generated, which can cause serious environmental and plant hygiene problems if not properly treated. With increasingly stringent environmental regulations, an enhanced understanding of well-controlled, off-gas cleaning systems is vital. In this paper, dynamic models for an industrial smelter, off-gas system tackling hazardous sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide are developed using mass continuity, momentum, and energy conservation laws. The effect of air in-leakage is explored under different operating conditions. The developed models provide an enhanced process understanding and a necessary basis for highperformance control analysis of smelter off-gas systems.