Additonal authors: He, S. S.. Book title: Proceedings of the 58th Conference of Metallurgists Hosting Copper 2019. Chapter: . Chapter title:
Porous copper and porous copper based alloys with controllable pore structure have been manufactured successfully by sintering evaporation process. This process consisted of mixing copper or copper based alloys with NaCl powders, hot pressing and final high-temperature sintering to evaporate the filler material of NaCl powders. NaCl was eliminated completely during vacuum sintering, and strong metallurgical bonding in the walls was achieved. The pores’ structural parameter (pore size, shape, and direction) and porosity can be controlled effectively. These porous copper and porous copper based alloys with controllable pore structure have great potential in many fields. Including heat dissipating materials, heat absorbing materials, chemical catalyst carriers, electromagnetic shielding materials, filtering materials, damping materials, silencing materials, battery electrode materials.
The development of porous materials began in the 1960s. The research of activated carbon with high specific surface area made porous materials enter the stage of material research (Belyakov et al., 2008; Ferey et al., 2008). With the rapid development of science and technology, porous materials play an important role in material research, and gradually become an indispensable part of the material research field (Wu et al., 2012). The research of porous materials has gradually extended to metal, ceramics, plastics and glass and other fields. It has been successfully applied in many fields, such as functional materials, industrial production, aviation, medical materials, biochemistry and electronics, which fully shows that porous materials have considerable development prospects.
Porous silicon, plastic porous materials and glass porous materials are the most widely used in the field of non-metallic porous materials (Capelle et al., 2012). Compared with non-metallic porous materials, metal porous materials have developed rapidly in the late 1980s and become new materials with good mechanical properties and excellent physical properties. Porous metal materials have many advantages, such as large specific surface, small specific gravity, good silencing effect, high stiffness, high electromagnetic shielding performance, good shock absorption performance, etc (Li et al., 1999; Ferey et al., 2008). Among its many applications, metal porous materials can be used as both functional materials and structural materials. In some cases, metal porous materials have dual functions and structures. It is a multi-purpose engineering material with excellent performance. At present, porous copper, porous aluminium and porous nickel are the most concerned materials (Chen et al., 2002; Yang et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2018). The preparation methods of porous copper and copper-based alloys mainly include self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), capsule-free hot isostatic pressing (CF-HIP), spark plasma sintering (SPS) (Kvanin et al., 2008; Takahashi et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2014). However, these methods can not accurately control pore structure parameters (including pore size, shape, orientation, distribution, etc.). In porous materials, pore structure plays an important role in the overall performance of materials. In order to control pore structure parameters accurately and optimize material performance, it is necessary to explore and develop new preparation technology. In this paper, the sintering evaporation process (SEP) was introduced for the preparation of porous copper and copper-based alloys. The core process of the preparation method is hot pressing and evaporative desalination. Hot pressing can make the pore orientation consistent. Evaporative desalination can ensure the complete removal of NaCl in the form of vapor in a short time, thus eliminating the corrosion of residual NaCl on the matrix metal (Gong et al., 2011).