Visualization of Bubbly Flows Injected by a Top Submerged Lance (TSL) in a Liquid Metal Layer By X-Ray Radiography

Additonal authors: Keplinger, O.. Book title: Proceedings of the 58th Conference of Metallurgists Hosting Copper 2019. Chapter: . Chapter title:

Proceedings, Vol. Proceedings of the 58th Conference of Metallurgists Hosting Copper 2019, 2019

Akashi, M.

We report on laboratory experiments focusing on bubbling phenomena arising from gas injection through a top submerged lance (TSL) in a liquid metal layer. The objective of this study is to reveal the characteristics of the formation and behaviour of the particular bubbles at different gas flow rates and submergence depths of lance. Visualization was performed in the eutectic alloy GaInSn using X-ray radiography. Argon bubbles were injected through the injection positions at three different submergence depths. Essential parameters such as the bubble size, bubble shape, detachment frequency and the two- dimensional gas distribution in the flat vessel were obtained by image processing. The results show that the deep position of the submerged lance causes an asymmetric large-scale circulation inside the fluid vessel. Bubble detachment frequencies were calculated by Fast Fourier Transformation from fluctuations of the image intensity in the vicinity of the nozzle injection point. This frequency does not show strong variations with respect to changes of the gas flow rate and the submergence depth of the nozzle. An increasing gas flow rate results in an increasing two-dimensional projected bubble area and the occurrence of a significant number of small bubbles being trapped by the strong fluid flow in the liquid metal layer. INTRODUCTION The Top Submerged Lance (TSL) process has been an essential component of the metallurgical industry since the emergence of first concepts about 50 years ago (Floyd, 2005). The process, which is characterized by blowing reactive gas through the submerged lance into a liquid bath, was developed mainly for improving the tin smelting process and has been applied for waste treatment or the production of several metals such as copper, lead, nickel and zinc. The productivity of the reactor is determined mainly by the efficiency of the chemical reaction between the gas or solid particles and the liquid. To achieve a high efficiency requires good exchange between the gas-liquid phase and therefore a large interface area. The efficiency changes greatly with the number and size of bubbles injected from the nozzle and the extent of splashing on the free surface. The degree of turbulence in the bath plays a decisive role here. For the reason, the design of an efficient TSL process requires a profound knowledge of the fluid dynamics especially for complex multiphase flows.
Keywords: Copper 2019, COM2019